The second situation is when you compare yourself with a different category, for example if you compare plastic with paper. If you change your plastic bottle to a cardboard structure, then things become a bit tricky. Clearly one KPI can worsen another. For example, if you change from plastics to paper, you will have to increase weight.  It is important to run a full life cycle analysis to understand the mix of metrics.  If I were to say what would be the single metric to focus on, it would be a metric for an absence of packaging or eliminating packaging as much as possible.

Clearly, sustainability in packaging needs to be achieved by many stakeholders acting together, not by someone with a silver bullet. Thinking about the wider picture, what areas of innovation or action would you like to see across the value chain in the coming years to meet the demands of nature and society?

I think it’s very important that the whole chain works on closing the cycle. Partnership, and collaboration is key in achieving this. Typically, all steps in the chain do not talking to each other, and even if they are, they do not understand each other and a full understanding of each stakeholder group is necessary for success.  An ideal pack should be used efficiently by consumers, collected, recycled and reused in its original context.

The second point is about increasing the facilities. Governmental help to impact society and consumer habits is one key point, and secondly the provision of infrastructure that will help close the full loop. We are missing a mastermind of a full circle and there is no central governmental body that is efficient. Manufacturers like RB want to partner with governments to help to close the loop of a full circle.